Overview

Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti (République d’HaïtiRepiblik Ayiti), is a Caribbean country which was discovered by Columbus in 1492. It is situated in the smaller portion of Island of Hispaniola towards its western side. It shares the Greater Antillean archipelago with Dominican Republic. Indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name was  Ayiti, the land of high mountains.  Haitian Creole and French are the official languages. Pic la Selle is the highest point of country and is 2,680 m (8,793 ft) high. Port-au-Prince is the capital city. Haiti is spread over an area of 27,750 sq km (10,714 sq mi).

 

There are numerous reasons for Haiti’s unique historical, regional, ethnic and linguistic position. After getting independence as result of slave revolution in 1804, it was the first black-led republic in the world and also the first independent nation in Latin America and Caribbean. It has also a history of being Americas only Francophone independent nation. It is only Canada and Haiti, where French is a designated  official language despite being independent states. Overseas départements, or collectivités, of France are the other French-speaking areas.

Haiti has the honor of being the most populous full member-state of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)-bloc. It is also the poorest as per the Human Development Index(HDI) state in the Americas. Its history is full of political violence stories.The most recent is the forces resignation  President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in February 2004 by an armed rebellion force, after which a provisional government took control. MINUSTAH-Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti provided security to the provisional government. In 2011;  Michel Martelly, current president, was elected in the Haitian general election.

On 12 January 2010, Haiti was struck by a  7.0 magnitude earthquake struck which completely destroyed Port-au-Prince. It became very difficult to determine the exact death toll, however the most reliable sources estimated at around 220,000. Haitian government estimates were even higher. Many important buildings to include The Presidential palace, Parliament were completely destroyed. Countless homes and businesses also vanished from the face of earth. The country is still in struggle to recover form the after effects of 2010 earthquake and specially he subsequent incidents. $2 billion was mustered up by United States aid organizations. Combined with other international donations and resources, all funds are gathered with the sole purpose of rebuilding of the country.